IMPSA IMPSA is a global company dedicated to producing solutions for power generation from renewable resources, ports and processes of different industries. IMPSA has over one hundred years. Since its inception in 1907, experienced a steady growth to become what is today: a company committed to its clients, which creates high-value solutions, socially responsible to the communities in which they work, with serious environmental awareness and dedication to long-term research and development of sustainable technologies. Today the company has a portfolio of electricity generation from renewable resources in execution of over 6,000 MW of installed capacity and more than 2,000 MMUSD.IMPSA has a global sales network with offices located in: – Argentina, full operations – Brazil, full operations – Chile – Ecuador – Colombia – Venezuela – USA – Malaysia, full operations – China – India – Vietnam Through its effectiveness in of adding value, the company has a guaranteed path for their installed hundreds of projects worldwide.
Archive for January, 2010
NATURAL RESOURCES 1. DEFINITION: Natural resources are the materials of nature that humans can use to meet their needs (eg food, clothing, housing, education, culture, recreation, etc.).. Natural resources are the source of raw materials (such as timber, minerals, oil, gas, coal, etc..), Transformed to produce goods used widely. 2.CLASSIFICATION: Natural resources are of many types and can be classified by their durability, divided into: RENEWABLE, where they can be exploited and non-renewable indefinitely: when finite and inexorable trend exhaustion. The revolving nature of a resource can be qualified: There are renewable resources that are by definition inexhaustible on a human scale, such as: or solar energy, or wind, or or tidal energy since, regardless of their intensive use, always available spontaneously. But among these there are some resources are exhaustible, whose availability depends on the degree of utilization of the same, since it sets the pace of recovery of the resource. or Among the latter are in inland water resources, either for direct consumption or for production of energy: dams can store only a finite amount of water depends on natural inputs to the watershed, which is renewed periodically, and which marks the maximum utilization rate to be reached before exhausting the appeal and have to stop using until recovery. or Something similar occurs with timber resources, as forests and forest plantations where the trees that are raw materials for construction and paper making, should not be exploited at a rate exceeding their regeneration capacity ( see forest management). Nonrenewable natural resources. They exist in the earth’s crust in finite quantities of these materials which can be exploited by man, this limited availability implies the need for material recycling systems, savings and alternatives to its use (especially for fuel, which can not be recycled) that do not compromise the development and quality of life of human societies. (See also Sustainable development). These are: or mineral resources, among which may also have or fossil fuels (coal or oil). Microsoft Encarta 2006. 1993-2005 Microsoft Corporation.All rights reserved.
Mining and energy Caletillas thermal power, located in the municipality of Candelaria (Tenerife). Mining Canary has never had much development. The volcanic nature of its crag has greatly limited its mineral potential. Yes there is some activity quarry to provide stone for construction (aggregate extraction). Another activity related to mining is the construction of galleries and wells to tap underground water for consumption. The production of electricity is important, but regional. Canary produces all the electricity it consumes, but consumption is not great because although tourism development has greatly increased demand, it is still low because of low industrial strength. Apart from the airports and tourist areas of high concentration, wells and desalination of sea water are those who demand more power.Most electricity is produced by thermoelectric means, with the company Unelco (belonging to the Endesa Group) owns the bulk of farms. Other energies Coal Power Hydroelectric power has little presence due to irregularities in rainfall. Wind energy, though increasing, is poorly represented, and still well below their potential.
Design and construction to achieve a minimum use of energy, design and construction of zero energy buildings differ significantly in their formal image of conventional buildings. In buildings of conventional design, the emphasis is usually on reducing initial construction costs to a minimum. The designers do not consider the costs of maintenance, operation, air conditioning, life cycle analysis of energy content to meet the limit set out in the building codes of the place. In the EEC’s position every important decision on the selection edilicio each subsystem is evaluated in terms of its impact on future energy demand, for which uses the technique of energy analysis of the life cycle. EEC designers support an increase initial construction cost if by this they can reduce energy demand and operating costs.A postulate for the design of a CES is first energy. In addition to using renewable energy, zero energy buildings are also designed to use the energy gained from other sources, including appliances, efficient lighting and use of metabolic heat (people). The buildings are optimized to take energy from the sun (passive house), use of thermal mass in order to maintain a constant internal temperature regardless of external temperature variations, further raising the average temperature inside in varying degrees in order to achieve the hygrothermal comfort with the help of thermal insulation or superinsulation. At present there all the knowledge and mature technology to build a EEC.Designers typically use sophisticated simulation tools that allow us to consider a wide range of design variables such as building orientation (relative to the sun), the type and location of windows, the shadows cast by buildings or by the building on itself, the depth of the glaze on the exterior surface of walls, insulation values at home subsystem edilicio, sensible heat content of air and latent heat, the efficiency of heating, lighting and other equipment as well as climate local. These simulations help designers to know how to behave before the building is constructed, and allow them to model the financial implications and construction costs. The architect or architectural designer usually hires an environmental consultant or bioclimatic for advice and initial design guidelines that will then be adjusted in the preliminary stage and project.Usually, the environmental consultant is composed of a multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary team involving architects, engineers, physicists, industrial designers and technologists. This depending on the size and complexity of the building.
1) Global Observer An aircraft that runs on liquid hydrogen has successfully conducted its first test flights by the U.S. company AeroVironment. It combines liquid hydrogen stored on board, pulled from the air with oxygen in fuel cells, and the propeller powered by electricity generated through this process. According to the company Aero vironment, the Global Observer aircraft can operate at 20,000 m in height by more than a week with a payload capacity of liquid hydrogen up to 0.45 Kg flexible The aircraft, called Global Observer and operates without a pilot. There is a row of eight propellers on the wing which are fed with hydrogen. The fact that the plane carrying liquid hydrogen on board means that it is imperative to isolate the tank where this is stored.The company has not released details about the design of the tank and not on the nature of the fuel cells that combine hydrogen and one part oxygen to one that draws from the sky while flying, but with this plane, using only two computers can rotate once a week each, without affecting the perfect communication and transmission of the same ground. AeroVironment plans to market aircraft such as Global Monitor as an alternative telecommunications platforms rather than existing satellites. In addition, aircraft which use hydrogen as an energy source would reduce the impact of aviation on climate change and greenhouse gas emissions that flights are growing faster than emissions from other sectors. New breakthroughs in clean fuels such as hydrogen, could help reverse this trend.
Naval Health System (Chile) On 2 August 1996 are published in the Official Journal of the Chilean Law No. 19,465, which establishes the “Health System in the Armed Forces”, and enables effective access of staff to the health actions in the manner and conditions provided by law. This is integrated into a single legal curative and preventive medicine for active and retired. It arises as a result of this the creation of the Naval Health System of the Chilean Navy, in charge of the Naval Health Directorate, in keeping with the basic concepts through to facilities throughout Chile. Naval Health System helps to maintain and restore health of its beneficiaries through actions of prevention, promotion, cure and rehabilitation of various diseases, both the active (official) and for pensioners (retired staff) naval and their families who are burdens, in order to deliver better health and can be given the resources available.The system reflects the concepts of solidarity, Continuity and Integrative Medicine.
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Introduction in Europe and the New World Kofetarica (The coffee drinker), 1888. Oil on canvas Kobilca Ivana (1861-1926), the National Museum of Ljubljana is considered that it was the German botanist Leonard Rauwolf who first described the coffee in a book published in 1583. The coffee was especially rejected by the Protestant areas, but not so harsh reactions occur as snuff. Already in 1611 some German landowners launched the system to prohibit its dissemination. These measures are maintained for at least a century in northern and eastern Germany, until Frederick II of Prussia decriminalize its use, subject to payment of a heavy tax. The unrest continued to coffee in northern Europe well into the nineteenth century.When in the seventeenth century first came coffee to Europe, some Catholic priests called him a bitter invention of Satan, for he saw as a possible substitute for wine, which, in his view, had been sanctified by Christ. However, according to the book Coffee is said that Pope Clement VIII tried the drink and immediately was hooked. To resolve the dilemma religious, symbolically named the beverage, thus making it acceptable to Catholics. In southern and western Europe there was greater tolerance. In the 1650s was truly imported and consumed in England, and began to open cafes in Oxford and London. The first coffeehouse opened in London in 1652. Coffee shops have become places where liberal ideas were born, due to frequent visits to these places (where, incidentally, were distributed pamphlets) by philosophers and lawyers.In 1676, this turmoil prompted the prosecutor of Charles II of England to the closure of the cafeterias, citing crimes against their own offense against the king and kingdom. The backlash against the decision were such that the closure edict should be revoked. The flow of ideas fueled by coffee altered dramatically in the UK. There were more than two thousand cafes, according to a record 1700. The famous Lloyd’s insurance company was originally a coffee shop, founded in 1688. In 1670 we opened the first cafe in Berlin. In Paris, the Cafe Procope was the first to open in 1686, inventing a new way to prepare coffee by passing hot water through a filter with ground coffee. The story of the famous Viennese coffee shops began with the Battle of Vienna in 1683.A mid-eighteenth century all European cities have cafes, and in 1734, Johann Sebastian Bach composed his famous Coffee Cantata (BWV 211), in which one of the scenes a girl asks her father if he punishes not forbidding do coffee, and says that if she marries, her husband must allow drinking. The coffee was banned in Russia, with punishments including torture and mutilation. And when the Tsarist police someone was seized with a nervous breakdown is attributed to coffee. Boston Tea Party in Boston, 1773 The cafe across the Atlantic in 1689 with the opening of the first store in Boston. The drink gained popularity and gained the rank of national drink, after the rebels launched sea surcharge tea by the British Crown during the tea riot in Boston. This key operation was prepared in the cafeteria green dragon. Coffee reached its full social acceptability in the eighteenth century.Soon the major crops moved to Ceylon and Indonesia, later consolidated in South America. Coffee began to be cultivated in the British colonies, particularly in Ceylon, but the plantations were devastated by disease and eventually replaced by tea plantations. In 1696, the Dutchmen did cultivate in Indonesia and Java. In 1714, the infantry captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu hid a cutting from a coffee plant offered by Holland to King Louis XIV of France and kept in the royal greenhouses to set on the slopes of Mount Pelee in Martinique and SantoDomingo. Fifty years later, they have 19 million plants in Martinique. The first planting in Brazil was established in 1727. Its industry depended on the practice of slavery which was abolished in 1888.The first coffee seeds were carried from the French Antilles, Colombia, and the first small-scale crops were recorded in the late colonial times, especially in the department of Magdalena, in 1785. When coffee reached the American colonies, did not initially as successful as had been in Europe since the colonists saw it as a poor substitute for alcohol. However, during the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to group the low stocks and raise prices dramatically part of this was due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.
The crisis dragged on and got worse as the economic and institutional problems were not solved. However, the hospital continued excellent level of care, to which the alien was no continuity in the Post-Graduate Institute and the activities of the College of Nurses, to a large extent, could overcome the shortage of staff and resources materials. This second stage begins with the insufficient economic support that led to the recruitment with the Social Security one of their flags, until it built care homes in Cantabria.To solve the general crisis faced by the institution, came the decree of the Council of Ministers on 24 April 1969 Private Charitable Foundation extinguished the Casa de Salud Valdecilla Foundation to create a Public Hospital Services and Welfare “Marqu s de Valdecilla” which is incorporated in the Casa de Salud Valdecilla, “without losing their personality or misuse of the will of its founder” composed as a special unit, in that foundation, under the supervision of the Provincial Government of Santander, which provides, the same, Provincial Maternity Hospital, Kindergarten, New Parayas Psychiatric Hospital and Geriatric Center. At that time, establishing the agreement with the University to spend Valdecilla to perform the functions of a university hospital, responsible for teaching and training of clinical subjects. New blocks are built and set goals with Social Security.In 1970 he performed an upgrade of facilities for an amount of 511,241,167 euros, bringing the Directorate General of Health on 50 reimbursable and running the rest of the amount payable by the Provincial de Santander. With this modernization is creating new services, and improved the already formed, also are other areas of specialization, and to modernize equipment and define the departmental structure. It is an important medical records, which is also an important means of work for scientific publications. A new building is constructed with input from the Ministry of Education and Science for the School of Nursing, more modern and more resources for teaching.You set up years later by the hospital association and the Residence Valdecilla Cantabria, which becomes a Special Center of Social Security and to adapt to this change becomes Valdecilla Hospital Genera and Cantabria Health Residence transformed into Maternal and Child Center, getting all the denomination’s National Medical Center “Marqu s de Valdecilla”. This project was signed on 22 June 1972, taking charge of the Social Security Administrative economic management. The volume and size of investments and changes made by comparing the figures set the time of the merger.Upon the merger in 1973 Valdecilla Foundation had a staff of 379 people and 682 care homes in Cantabria, ie a total of 1061 people, and in 1982 the total workforce dle Medical Center was 4,000 people, is , practically had created 3,000 jobs, becoming the Medical Center, the number of employees, first of all enterprises in Cantabria. Importantly, the creation of the Faculty of Medicine (since decades old aspiration above) in 1972, although the first course would not start until 10 January 1973, with the director since 1969 as dean Valdecilla-curator, Segundo Lopez Velez. We used the powerful device Valdecilla and aid from the County for development of the faculty.In 1982 he achieved the necessary funds worth over 500 million pesetas for the initiation of remodeling Valdecilla wards from the old foundation, in order to devote to the expansion of activities in various sectors, such as combining care of cancer patients.
Water supply The water supply is guaranteed Curitiba mainly by reservoirs formed by dams and Piraquara Ira I, serving the region east of the city, and Passa na, which supplies the south and west. The population of Curitiba and its metropolitan area consumes approximately 7.5 thousand liters of treated water per second, which is supplied by the Companhia de Saneamento do Parana (Sanepar). Moreover, it is estimated that there are in the city over a thousand wells (mainly used by condominiums, businesses and hospitals), which together have the potential to provide an additional volume of approximately 1.5 thousand liters of water per second . During the winter droughts in recent years, water supply has been compromised at times. At those times have been scheduled outages of necessary supplies, which are executed in accordance with schedules set by the Sanepar.The works of the dam Piraquara II should be completed early in 2007 but is only operational until summer 2008, it is necessary a period of approximately one year for raising the water level in the reservoir formed, which will have a final capacity of 22 billion liters. Subsequently, provide for the construction of collection and treatment station Miringuava River, in S o Jos dos Pinhais.