Anesthesia Patient anesthetized in postoperative recovery. For other uses, see Anesthesia (disambiguation). Anesthesia (from gr. , meaning “numbness”) is a medical procedure in which controlled drugs used to block the touch or pain of a patient, either in whole or part of your body and with or without commitment consciousness. General anesthesia is characterized by offering hypnosis, amnesia, analgesia, muscle relaxation and abolition of reflexes. Anesthesiology is the medical specialty dealing with the attention and care of patients during surgical procedures and other processes that may be uncomfortable or painful (endoscopy, interventional radiology, etc.).. It is responsible for the treatment of acute or chronic extraquir rgica cause. Examples of the latter are analgesia during labor and pain relief in cancer patients.The specialty is called anesthesiology, since it covers the treatment of critical patients in different areas such as postoperative recovery and emergency and critical patient care in the intensive care unit or postoperative resuscitation. The medical specialty of intensive care medicine is an arm of anesthesiology. Crawford W. Long, pioneered the use of anesthesia. Since the beginning of science has sought a means of eliminating pain. In March 1842 in Danielsville, Georgia, Dr. Crawford Williamson Long was the first to use anesthesia (ether) during an operation, when administered before a child remove a cyst from the neck, but only released this information while later. It was Dr. Horace Wells dentist who started using nitrous oxide as anesthesia, after using the self-titled seen hab rselo professor and chemist Q. GardnerColton in his shows, which consisted of volunteers using this gas to the public. This put them in a state of euphoria and excitement (sometimes violent), and lost their inhibitions, which delighted the audience. On one occasion, one of the volunteers under the effect of gas was injured and Dr. Wells noted that he felt no pain. Based on this self decided to check whether the nitrous oxide to eliminate pain and 11 December 1844, after suck gas, his assistant John Riggs pulled out a tooth without Wells complained. On waking, Wells said, “A new era in tooth extraction. Later, on 16 October 1846, in Boston, was William Morton, Wells’ assistant, who made a successful demonstration of the use of anesthesia when applied to a patient of Dr. John Collins Warren. Dr. Warren was able to remove a tumor from his patient’s neck without any pain he felt.Since then, Morton was devoted to administering anesthesia, hiding the type of gas used (which he called “letheon”) to be used exclusively, but was forced to reveal that it was ether. Since then, the use of Ether spread rapidly. In mid-December 1847, at a hospital in Edinburgh, the obstetrician James Simpson and his partner first Dunken practiced using chloroform painless childbirth, because the ether had been tested in January of that same year proving that despite being the patient asleep labor contractions continued normally. Ether caused side effects that prompted Simpson to seek other gas with similar effects but without the coughing spells that arose after inhalation of large quantities of ether. The mother was so grateful that he called his daughter “anesthesia”. In 1848 Dr. Jonh Snow perfected the technique of application of chloroform to give it in small doses during labor.This fact did not become popular until 1853, when Snow applied chloroform to Queen Victoria at the birth of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. After delivery, appointed Dr. Sir. Despite the introduction of other volatile anesthetics (ethene, trichloroethene, cyclopropane), ether general anesthesia remained the standard until early 1960, to be later replaced by potent inhalation agents and non-flammable, such as halothane, followed later by the enflurane, and later by isoflurane until in the 1990s, the latest sevoflurane and desflurane.To achieve its objective is to remove the pain, anesthesiology must have experienced different ways to bring the individual into a pharmacological coma reversible, ie, canceling the cortical activity by chemicals that induce a stabilization of the cell membrane of the neuron through a hyperpolarization of it, blocking entry of calcium ions through interaction with GABA receptors in cell membranes.