Introduction in Europe

Introduction in Europe and the New World Kofetarica (The coffee drinker), 1888. Oil on canvas Kobilca Ivana (1861-1926), the National Museum of Ljubljana is considered that it was the German botanist Leonard Rauwolf who first described the coffee in a book published in 1583. The coffee was especially rejected by the Protestant areas, but not so harsh reactions occur as snuff. Already in 1611 some German landowners launched the system to prohibit its dissemination. These measures are maintained for at least a century in northern and eastern Germany, until Frederick II of Prussia decriminalize its use, subject to payment of a heavy tax. The unrest continued to coffee in northern Europe well into the nineteenth century.When in the seventeenth century first came coffee to Europe, some Catholic priests called him a bitter invention of Satan, for he saw as a possible substitute for wine, which, in his view, had been sanctified by Christ. However, according to the book Coffee is said that Pope Clement VIII tried the drink and immediately was hooked. To resolve the dilemma religious, symbolically named the beverage, thus making it acceptable to Catholics. In southern and western Europe there was greater tolerance. In the 1650s was truly imported and consumed in England, and began to open cafes in Oxford and London. The first coffeehouse opened in London in 1652. Coffee shops have become places where liberal ideas were born, due to frequent visits to these places (where, incidentally, were distributed pamphlets) by philosophers and lawyers.In 1676, this turmoil prompted the prosecutor of Charles II of England to the closure of the cafeterias, citing crimes against their own offense against the king and kingdom. The backlash against the decision were such that the closure edict should be revoked. The flow of ideas fueled by coffee altered dramatically in the UK. There were more than two thousand cafes, according to a record 1700. The famous Lloyd’s insurance company was originally a coffee shop, founded in 1688. In 1670 we opened the first cafe in Berlin. In Paris, the Cafe Procope was the first to open in 1686, inventing a new way to prepare coffee by passing hot water through a filter with ground coffee. The story of the famous Viennese coffee shops began with the Battle of Vienna in 1683.A mid-eighteenth century all European cities have cafes, and in 1734, Johann Sebastian Bach composed his famous Coffee Cantata (BWV 211), in which one of the scenes a girl asks her father if he punishes not forbidding do coffee, and says that if she marries, her husband must allow drinking. The coffee was banned in Russia, with punishments including torture and mutilation. And when the Tsarist police someone was seized with a nervous breakdown is attributed to coffee. Boston Tea Party in Boston, 1773 The cafe across the Atlantic in 1689 with the opening of the first store in Boston. The drink gained popularity and gained the rank of national drink, after the rebels launched sea surcharge tea by the British Crown during the tea riot in Boston. This key operation was prepared in the cafeteria green dragon. Coffee reached its full social acceptability in the eighteenth century.Soon the major crops moved to Ceylon and Indonesia, later consolidated in South America. Coffee began to be cultivated in the British colonies, particularly in Ceylon, but the plantations were devastated by disease and eventually replaced by tea plantations. In 1696, the Dutchmen did cultivate in Indonesia and Java. In 1714, the infantry captain Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu hid a cutting from a coffee plant offered by Holland to King Louis XIV of France and kept in the royal greenhouses to set on the slopes of Mount Pelee in Martinique and SantoDomingo. Fifty years later, they have 19 million plants in Martinique. The first planting in Brazil was established in 1727. Its industry depended on the practice of slavery which was abolished in 1888.The first coffee seeds were carried from the French Antilles, Colombia, and the first small-scale crops were recorded in the late colonial times, especially in the department of Magdalena, in 1785. When coffee reached the American colonies, did not initially as successful as had been in Europe since the colonists saw it as a poor substitute for alcohol. However, during the Revolutionary War, the demand for coffee increased so much that dealers had to group the low stocks and raise prices dramatically part of this was due to the reduced availability of tea from British merchants.