Origins and development. The concept of orthomolecular correction of the internal environment through the addition or subtraction of nutritional factors has been developed over the last eighty years, thanks to the contributions of dozens of researchers, notably Albert von Nagirapolt Scent-Georgia, Otto Heinrich Warburg, Linus Carl Pauling, all Nobel prize winners. Linus Pauling proposed in 1968 the term “orthomolecular”, whose etymology is the words ortho-gr. right-and moles, “lat. elementary particle, “in an essay titled” Orthomolecular Psychiatry: Varying the concentration of substances normally present in the human body can control disease. ” . The prefix “ortho” is the same spelling (the correct spelling), orthodontics (tooth alignment correct) or orthopedic (bone for proper disposition.)A classic example of the “correction of disorders of the internal environment by varying the concentration of substances normally present in the body” is the treatment of PKU diet eliminating the amino acid phenylalanine. Another is the supplementation of lithium to treat mental disorders such as depression (in bipolar disorder), carried out routinely by conventional psychiatrists unaware that they are practicing orthomolecular medicine. Lithium is a mineral normally present in trace quantities in the human diet. Using this principle, supplementation with the amino acid L-Dopa to correct the deficit of the neurotransmitter dopamine and, consequently, is an effective treatment (in fact, treatment) of Parkinson’s disease. Similarly, supplementation with vitamins Hill (chemistry) and vitamin B-5 (Pantothenate) allow the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, whose deficit is implicated in cognitive decline with age and Alzheimer’s.It is extremely important to note here that while the deficits of these neurotransmitters are not the original cause of the disease-as well as the absence of insulin is not the root cause of diabetes, but the result of the destruction of cells of islets of Langerhans in the pancreas-nutrient supplementation described makes it possible to treat the symptoms and signs of these diseases. Other Examples include: temporary protein restriction (a-protein diet) in certain kidney diseases such as nephrotic syndrome in order to allow a break in this body thus avoiding damage to the renal tubules by excessive proteinuria, or the use of Ascorbic acid in diseases of diverse etiology (bacterial or viral infections, poisoning and, notably, cancer .).In fact, the ability to intervene successfully (with vitamins, amino acids, trace elements, essential fatty acids and hormones) in a condition as complex as the cancer has given rise to a rapidly developing discipline: Orthomolecular Oncology. All substances in cells and in the intercellular spaces, lymph, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (ie, everything that constitutes the internal environment or millieu interieur) are synthesized from nutrients. These substances: water, electrolytes, amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, trace elements, etc. are ultimately raw material for manufacturing organic hormones, neurotransmitters, respiratory coenzymes, secondary intracellular messengers and cell membranes, hemoglobin, the antioxidant compounds (free radical scavengers) and ions that generate the electrical potential of the membranes.All items, whether functional or structural, the human body, from the intra-articular lubricant, blood plasma or digestive enzymes to the bone, skin, myofibrils and all components of cells, have the materials premiums to one or more of the molecules usually incorporated with the diet.